A great range of trees and shrubs, deciduous and  evergreen, Some are grown more for their foliage and tough shrubby nature, Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald 'n' Gold', whilst others are more tree-like, with incredible, showy fruits, E. oxyphyllus. These will also often produce great autumn colour.

Spindles mostly have rather insignificant greenish flowers that are pollinated mainly by flies (but flies are important too. Bees are not the only pollinators!). As shrubs they may be used for nesting by garden birds, and in autumn the showy berries are much eaten by birds, who may then disperse the seeds away from gardens. Several species have become locally established in the wild (only E. europaeus is native) but none are the cause of significant ecological concern at present. In summer, the leaves of several species may be eaten by the spindle ermine, a micromoth whose larvae live communally within festoons of silk. If this happens, don't worry: most will regrow happily after defoliation, the moth may not appear in the same place in successive years, and unlike other defoliators with hairy caterpillars, those of spindle ermine are smooth and readily eaten by your garden birds. Settle back and enjoy the 'modern art' in your back-yard...

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